Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (Arabic: الحسين بن علي بن أبي طالب; 10 January 626 – 10 October 680) (5 Sha’aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) – 10 Muharram AH 61), also spelled as Husain, Hussain or Hussein, was the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad and the son of Ali ibn Abi ṬTalib (fourth Rashidun caliph of Sunni Islam, and first Imam of Shia Islam) and Fatimah Zahra (daughter of Muhammad).
He married Shahrbanu, daughter of the last Sassanid emperor of Persia Yazdegerd III. This claim is generally made by Shia Muslims as there are no evidence that Yazdegerd III had a daughter named Shahrbanu.
Husayn is an important figure in Islam, as he was a member of the Ahl al-Bayt (the household of Muhammad) and Ahl al-Kisa, as well as being the third Shia Imam.
His father’s supporters (Shi’a Ali) in Kufa gave their allegiance to him. However, he told them he was still bound to the peace treaty between Hasan and Muawiyah I and they should wait until Muawiyah was dead. Later, Hussain did not accept the request of Muawiyah for the succession of his son, Yazid I, and considered this action a breach of theHasan–Muawiya treaty.
When Muawiyah I died in 680, Husayn refused to pledge allegiance to Yazid I, who had just been appointed asUmayyad caliph by Muawiyah, because he considered the Umayyads an oppressive and religiously misguided regime. He insisted on his legitimacy based on his own special position as a direct descendant of Muhammad and his legitimate legatees. As a consequence, he left Medina, his home town, to take refuge in Mecca in AH 60. There, the people of Kufa sent letters to him, asking his help and pledging their allegiance to him. So he travelled towards Kufa. At a place near Kufa, known as Karbala, his caravan was intercepted by Yazid I’s army. He was killed and beheaded in the Battle of Karbala on 10 October 680 (10 Muḥarram 61) by Shimr Ibn Thil-Jawshan, along with most of his family and companions.
Husayn is highly regarded by Shia Muslims due to refusing to pledge allegiance to Yazid I, the Umayyad caliph, because he considered the rule of the Umayyads unjust. The annual memorial for him, his family, his children and his companions is called Ashura (tenth day of Muharram) and is a day of mourning for Shia Muslims. His action at Karbala fuelled the later Shia movements.Anger at Husayn’s death was turned into a rallying cry that helped undermine the Umayyad caliphate legitimacy and ultimately overthrow the Umayyad caliphate by Abbasid Revolution. View Of Source wikipedia
The incident of Mubahala
In the year AH 10 (AD 631/32) a Christian envoy from Najran (now in southern Saudi Arabia) came to Muhammad to argue which of the two parties erred in its doctrine concerning Isa (Jesus). After likening Jesus’ miraculous birth to Adam’s (Adem) creation,[a]—who was born to neither a mother nor a father — and when the Christians did not accept the Islamic doctrine about Jesus, Muhammad was instructed to call them to Mubahala where each party should ask God to destroy the false party and their families. If anyone dispute with you in this matter [concerning Jesus] after the knowledge which has come to you, say: Come let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves, then let us swear an oath and place the curse of God on those who lie.[b] Sunni historians, except Tabari who do not name the participants, mention Muhammad, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn, and some agree with the Shia tradition that Aliwas also among the participants in this event on the side of Muhammad. Accordingly, in the verse of Mubahala the words “Our sons” is representative of Hasan and Husayn; “our women” would refer to Fatimah; and “ourselves” would be “Ali”