Medina “the radiant city”; or المدينة, al-Madīnah (Hejazi pronunciation: [almaˈdiːna]), “the city”), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz, and the capital of the Al Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia. The city contains al-Masjid an-Nabawi (“the Prophet’s Mosque”), which is the burial place of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and is the second-holiest city in Islam after Mecca.
Medina was Muhammad’s destination after his Hijrah from Mecca, and became the capital of a rapidly increasing Muslim Empire, first under Muhammad’s leadership, and then under the first four Rashidun caliphs, Abu Bakr, Umar,Uthman, and Ali. It served as the power base of Islam in its first century where the early Muslim community developed. Medina is home to the three oldest mosques, namely the Quba Mosque, al-Masjid an-Nabawi, andMasjid al-Qiblatayn (“the mosque of the two qiblas”). Muslims believe that the chronologically final surahs of theQuran were revealed to Muhammad in Medina, and are called Medinan surahs in contrast to the earlier Meccan surahs.
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